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We all share our common goal – ‘GREEN’

Concerns about the environment and development are certainly not new.

However, more recently the ongoing global dialogue has formed around the strategies needed to address the interrelated challenges of building healthy societies, economies, and environments.

Over the past few decades, blind optimism about the creation of a modern technological utopia has been replaced by a more realistic understanding of the forces contributing to the world’s problems.

“Sustainability” is becoming the key and essential element in every approach we plan towards new development.

“Sustainability” is a challenge, for all of us.

If, at all, we are to succeed, it will take more than a “Business As Usual” approach.

In fact, we believe the whole definition of “business as usual” needs to be upended.

Business can no longer afford to ignore environmental warnings.

Environmentalists can no longer demonize business.

Sustainability has made us understand, in a way we never would have before, that we all share a common fate.

We need to face the reality that — like it or not — we’re in this together.

We need to fulfill our common goal – “GREEN”.

Make our  Mother Planet Safer, by making it Greener – our every small endevour will be important.

That is the way to prosperity, for all of us, including for our coming generations.

Sincerely,

Partha Das Sharma

On twitter:  twitter.com/sharmapd1

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SOLAR IMPULSE: POWERED ONLY BY THE SUN

Solar Impulse is the name of a Swiss long-range experimental solar-powered aircraft project, which can fly day and night without fuel. solar_impulse

Historic solar flight marks first round-the-world journey: The world’s first round-the-world flight to be powered solely by the sun’s energy made history Tuesday (26th July 2016) as it landed in Abu Dhabi, where it first took off on an epic 25,000-mile (40,000-kilometer) journey that began more than a year ago.

Since its March 2015 take off, the Swiss-engineered Solar Impulse 2 has made 16 stops across the world without using a drop of fuel to demonstrate that using the plane’s clean technologies on the ground can halve the world’s energy consumption, save natural resources and improve quality of life.……

Great achievement ………MANY CONGRATULATIONS

www.solarimpulse.com

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The Paris Climate Summit 2015 (COP 21): Nations large and small volunteered to make cuts in their carbon emissions, and also to participate in a program of regular assessment and adjustment every five years starting in 2020.

According to the organizing committee at the outset of the talks the expected key result was an agreement to set a goal of limiting global warming to less than 2 degrees Celsius (°C) compared to pre-industrial levels.

It’s possible that further cuts will come, and that, aided by new technologies, humanity will eventually find a solution to climate change.

Critiques, however, are skeptic about the the intention of 195 nations attending the summit, and furious about not to do anything substantive to combat global warming.

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Europe Finds Clean Energy in Trash, but U.S. Lags

A vast energy plant that burns thousands of tons of household garbage and industrial waste, round the clock for generation of Electricity.

Far cleaner than conventional incinerators, this new type of plant converts local trash into heat and electricity. Dozens of filters catch pollutants, from mercury to dioxin, that would have emerged from its smokestack only a decade ago.

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Organic Catalyst Treatments: Eco-friendly and safer technology

Organic catalysts improve environmental waste treatment in a number of critical maintenance and processing areas.

Key attributes that make organic catalysts uniquely attractive are its ability to elevate the level of dissolved oxygen (DO) in solution, regardless of aeration technique; ability to solubilise the molecular structure of organic wastes, including the insoluble fats, oils, and grease (FOGs) components; eliminating chronic and dangerous volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as ammonia and H2S gases; and the ability to enhance biological nitrogen removal (BNR) systems.

Sewers: Maintaining aerobic environments within collection systems is essential to avoid chronic service problems and dangerous conditions due to hazardous gases, which are also the source of most public complaints. Eliminating slime layers and FOG clogging are excellent maintenance applications for organic catalysts. They can also be used to increase dissolved oxygen levels within gravity and forced mains, as well as other aerobically compromised parts of the system.

Aeration Systems: Organic catalysts has been shown to make a substantial improvement in aeration systems through raising dissolved oxygen levels, increasing gas transfer rates, and improving bioprocesses. Improving aeration system performance can lower energy requirements (up to 30%), along with acting as a method for maintaining higher dissolved oxygen (DO) levels during heavier loading periods, which provides operators with a means to better manage optimum microbiological activities.

Sludge Processing: Processing of bio-solids can be substantially improved with addition of organic catalysts. Sludge volumes have been significantly reduced (up to 40%) while methane production quantities were maintained in full-scale applications. Subsequent treatment and handling of bio-solids can be improved due to reduction in odour and better bio-processing of the bacterial components.

Technology Breakthrough: Organic Catalysts have undergone extensive and independent testing, showing the highest safety for human, animal, and marine life. Organic Catalysts are non-toxic, non-caustic, non-corrosive, non-irritating, hypoallergenic, bacteria-free and biodegradable.

This safety profile provides significant competitive advantages against traditional chemicals, including biological agents, due to their unsurpassed handling ease and safety for workers.

Organic Catalysts are comprised of a fermentation supernatant, derived from plants and minerals, which is blended synergistically in combination with a non-ionic surfactant to create a broad spectrum bio-organic catalyst. Unlike conventional surfactant, which can limit oxygen transfer, Organic Catalysts self-organize and create heavy micro bubbles having very high oxygen transfer characteristics. More available oxygen enables aerobic reactions that will speed up the natural degradation process, while improved gas transfer rates improve both the conversion of insoluble organic waste components to carbon, and enhance maximum utilization of molecular oxygen.

Organic Catalysts provide economically compelling benefits to environmental professionals, bringing practical and cost saving advancements to wastewater treatment, water clarification, industrial and commercial cleaning; and have also shown great promise in agriculture, biofilm eradication, and hydrocarbon remediation applications.

Ref:

http://www.mining-technology.com/contractors/health-and-safety/ecocatalysts/presswhen-are-organic-catalysts-treatments-useful.html?WT.mc_id=DN_PR

http://www.mining-technology.com/contractors/health-and-safety/ecocatalysts/presstechnology-breakthrough-organic-catalyst-treatments.html?WT.mc_id=DN_PR

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Plastic-Eating Fungi Found in the Amazon May Solve World’s Waste Problem

Several active organisms were identified, including two distinct isolates of Pestalotiopsis microspora with the ability to efficiently degrade and utilize common plastic polyurethane (PUR) as the sole carbon source when grown anaerobically, a unique observation among reported PUR biodegradation activities.

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Climate change will shake the Earth: A changing climate isn’t just about floods, droughts and heatwaves. It brings erupting volcanoes and catastrophic earthquakes too…..

Read: http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2012/feb/26/why-climate-change-shake-earth

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Durban Climate Deal:

The hard-fought deal at a global climate conference in Durban, South Africa keeps talks alive but doesn’t address the core problem: The world’s biggest carbon polluters aren’t willing to cut emissions of greenhouse gases enough to stave off dangerous levels of global warming.

With many scientists saying time is running out, a bigger part of the solution may have to come from the rise of climate-friendly technologies being developed outside the U.N. process.

Scientists say that if levels of greenhouse gases continue to rise, eventually the world’s climate will reach a tipping point, with irreversible melting of some ice sheets and a several-foot rise in sea levels.

A report released before the Durban talks by the U.N. Environment Programme said greenhouse gas emissions need to peak before 2020 for the world to have a shot of reaching that target. It said that’s doable only if nations raise their emissions pledges.

In Durban, they did not.

Ref.: Big polluters fail to bend at climate conference (http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2011/12/11/MNKN1MB84O.DTL )

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Harvesting of Hydrogen from Steel making process – Making the System Eco-Friendly

Tata Steel, a renowned Indian Iron & Steel making Company, has come up with a process that uses waste heat of molten slag generated in the steelmaking process to split water molecules (H2O) to collect hydrogen that can be used as a low-cost, green fuel.In the steel plant the generated wastes, like molten slag from basic oxygen converters called LD slag, at a temperature of about 1600° C. to 1700° C. are dumped into pits for removal and further processing. In the present invention the heat of this waste material can be used for the production of a gas stream comprising hydrogen gas or hydrogen and carbon monoxide.The main object of the present invention therefore, is to use the heat of steel plant wastes, like molten slags for generating hydrogen by splitting water and/or steam or a mixture of the two in the presence of a reducing agent.

Ref: http://www.tata.com/media/articles/inside.aspx?artid=55R3uRP/hys

http://www.ecofriendlymag.com/general-green-news/hydrogen-generated-using-red-hot-steel/

http://www.patentstorm.us/applications/20090220410/description.html

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Was Fukushima nuclear disaster in Japan tsunami induced but man-made?

There is no doubt that the Tohoku quake, 9.0 on the Richter scale, with its associated tsunami up to 40 m, has been one of the worst natural disasters in recorded history. The scale of the tragedy is epic. It has been well publicized throughout the world.

In relative proximity of the epicenter there were 14 nuclear power plants. All of them shutdown automatically as well as the nearby coal-fire plants.

The quake knocked out the Northern Japan power grid, while the resulting tsunami disabled the onsite electric power supplies at the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) Fukushima Daiichi six unit nuclear power plant causing a nuclear emergency due to loss of water injection ability.

Units 1-3 were generating electricity at the quake time (14:46 March 11), while units 4-6 were shutdown for inspections. For units 1-4 the nuclear emergency led to serious nuclear accidents.

Many Nuclear experts assert that these accidents were preventable and thus the disaster amounts to tsunami induced man-made disaster.

Ref.: http://moderntokyotimes.com/2011/05/16/fukushima-nuclear-accident-tsunami-induced-but-man-made-disaster/

http://laaska.wordpress.com/2011/05/01/japan-tepco-official-fukushima-is-man-made-disaster/

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Successful Night-Flight by Solar Plane:

‘Solar Impulse’, a solar-powered giant glider like prototype airplane has successfully completed first night flight, only by using SOLAR ENERGY, in Switzerland on 7th July 2010. The solar energy required for this flight was stored during the day.

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Some of world’s worst man-made Environmental Disasters:

* Accident at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, Russia happened on 26th April, 1986. Four hundred times more radioactive material was released than had been by atomic bombing of Hiroshima.

* Disaster at Bhopal, India, because of Union Carbide pesticide plant gas leak, happened on the night of December 2 – 3, 1984. Release of Methyl Isocyanides (MIC) gas and other toxins, resulting in the exposure of over 500,000 people.

* An explosion at Seveso, Italy, around midday on July 10, 1976 occurred in a TCP (2,4,5 – Trichlorophenol) reactor in the ICMESA chemical company; resulting in a toxic cloud with high concentration of TCDD, a high toxic form of dioxin released into atmosphere.

* American oil tanker Exxon Valdez oil spill at Alaska, US, on March 24, 1989. It happened due to its collision with Bligh reef causing a major oil leakage (estimated to be more than 11 million gallon oil spill spread over vast area polluting about 1900 km of coastline). Though Exxon Valdez oil spill has been regarded as the largest man-made environmental disaster in US history, the Gulf of Mexico spill that began in April 2010 may eventually surpass it in severity.

* The Love canal (near Niagara fall) chemical waste dump, USA. When Love canal was researched, it was discovered that the town was sitting over 21000 tons of toxic industrial waste that had been buried underground in 1940s and 1950s by a local company.

* Three Mile Island Nuclear Disaster in US, on March 28, 1979. Nuclear Reactor near Harrisburg partially melted down causing a near nuclear disaster. Fortunately 18 billion curies of radiation that could have released were held by containment structure around the reactor.

* Kuwaiti OIL fire during Gulf war resulting from 1990 Iraqi invasion of Kuwait.

* Death of Aral Sea, Kazakhstan (area as big as Ireland), because of diversion of rivers by various Soviet Union irrigation projects. Once one of the world’s largest inland seas and home to thousands of species, in under 20 years the Aral Sea has shrunk to ten percent of its original size and is so salty that barely any life form remains.

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Oil slick in the Gulf of Mexico creates environmental devastation:

The Deepwater Horizon, owned by Transocean and leased to BP, caught fire April 20, 2010, after an explosion and sank. The rig, with a platform bigger than a football field  was one of the most modern and was drilling in 5,000 feet of water.

The massive oil spill that threatened to eclipse even the Exxon Valdez disaster spread out of control, washing ashore along the Gulf Coast. It is of grave concern.

As per recent update, oil already washed onto Louisiana shores, threatening an environmental calamity, as two neighboring states declared a state of emergency. Unique feats of engineering will be necessary to cut off the gusher more than a mile beneath the surface of the ocean and experts are warning that its success is far from certain.

In fact, oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico just keeps getting worse and worse. The slick is getting bigger every day. The environmental havoc from this oil spill is just beginning. It threatens destruction to wetlands and sea life as well as the livelihoods of fishermen and the health of clean-up workers. Apart, dead turtles are seen washed ashore as well. In other words, a colossal damage has already been caused to wildlife and animals.

Utmost precaution to be adopted for Gulf Oil Spill Clean-Up – In the cleanup efforts to come, “extreme caution” must be exercised so as not to make a bad situation even worse. The concentration of detergents and other chemicals used to clean up sites contaminated by oil spills can cause environmental nightmares of their own. It is important to remember that oil is a biological product and can be degraded by microbes, both on and beneath the surface of the water. Some of the detergents that are typically used to clean-up spill sites are more toxic than the oil itself, in which case it would be better to leave the site alone and allow microbes to do what they do best.

The Deepwater Horizon oil rig is now estimated to be disgorging some 210,000 gallons of oil a day into the Gulf of Mexico. To contain the spreading oil slick and keep it from polluting the fragile ecosystems of the Gulf coast and the Mississippi delta, clean-up crews have deployed an array of chemical dispersants, oil skimmers and booms. They have also attempted to burn off some of the surface oil. Such aggressive clean-up efforts are fraught with unintended consequences.

BP’s plugging Oil leak: The Gulf of Mexico oil spill is the worst environmental disaster the US has faced. BP is to try a new tactic after its latest failure to plug the leak, but says there is no guarantee of success.

The oil emanating from the seafloor contains about 40 percent methane, compared with about 5 percent found in typical oil deposits. That means huge quantities of methane have entered the Gulf, scientists say, potentially suffocating marine life by depleting oxygen.

If efforts fail to cap the seafloor leaks, the continuous seep of oil could poison the Gulf’s coastal habitats for decades, experts say.

The US administration has already termed the leak as the biggest environmental catastrophe in the country’s history.

For more potographs refer: Scenes from the Gulf of Mexico_oil_spill

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Future oil-spill Fighters:

Sponges that sop up oil, “superbugs” that devour crude, and high-efficiency chemical herders are among emerging tech for battling spills.

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Cancun Climate Summit, December 2010:

The outcome of the United Nations climate change summit in Cancun was an agreement, not a binding treaty, which calls on rich countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions as pledged in the Copenhagen Accord, and for developing countries to plan to reduce their emissions, to limit global warming to less than 2 degrees celsius above pre-industrial levels. The agreement includes a proposed $100 billion a year fund to assist poorer countries finance emission reductions and adaptation.

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Global Warming: Branson Wants to Step In Now

The response by government to the threat of global warming has been underwhelming so far. But at least one business leader, the British billionaire and founder of the Virgin Group Richard Branson, says he has heard the alarm from scientists and environmentalists about climate change, and believes that the world must not waste time shifting away from oil and other fossil fuels.

So, Branson has taken it upon himself — unsurprisingly — to lead the charge against carbon. In 2010, he will officially launch the Carbon War Room, a corporate think tank of sorts, designed to incubate and spread the best ways to cut carbon in corporate sectors ranging from aviation to shipping to construction.

Incidentally, the UN led climate change summit at Copenhangen in December 2009, concluded with an agreement to limit global warming to a maximum of two degrees Celsius over pre-industrial times, but did not layout how to achieve that.

Read more: http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1950662,00.html#ixzz0bMY17WDF

http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1950662,00.html

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Are high oil prices good for Environment??

People argue that, when ‘Oil prices are high’…. “People will demand for more and more energy efficient cars…we want our auto industry adaptable enough to answer changing needs. Auto industry destruction was for good, now we will see birth of auto industry, which will be much more competitive”.

Also, people will start using energy from ‘Renewable energy sources’ more, causing less pollution to the atmosphere.

Ref: http://caps.fool.com/Blogs/ViewPost.aspx?bpid=280574&t=02007495882059315953

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Keys to Running an Efficient Green Business Climate:

With unprecedented energy price volatility and looming climate regulations, businesses face a new and complex energy paradigm. In this scenario, growing number of companies recognize that energy efficiency must form the backbone of any corporate strategy to address the new energy frontier. A set of energy management guidelines that are useful for firms seeking to develop energy efficiency strategies are:

* Firms recognize the energy paradigm is changing rapidly.

* Companies are responding by establishing corporate-wide energy efficiency targets.

* Senior management support is critical in the development and implementation of energy efficiency programs.

* The most common challenge companies face in pursuing efficiency gains are resource constraints, especially limits on capital.

* Employee engagement is an effective, but possibly underutilized strategy for improving energy efficiency.

* Energy efficiency can be a gateway to wider business innovation.

Energy efficiency should be the foundation of any corporate strategy designed to navigate this new business reality.

Ref.: http://www.reuters.com/article/gwmEnergy/idUS192128611620090929

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New technologies may grab carbon right out of air:

This is different from trapping carbon dioxide as it comes out of pollution sources like factories and power plants. This so-called “air capture technology” could be set up anywhere and suck carbon directly from the atmosphere.

Because air capture need not be near carbon-belching factories, it could help the world’s poorest countries, which at this point cannot benefit from the global carbon market, in which companies in developed countries get credits for investing in carbon-limiting projects in poor countries.

The devices to do this are varied in appearance. Some look a bit like telescopes, others involve vast, thin wall-like structures to capture the carbon. But all aim for a net reduction in atmospheric carbon, instead of just slowing down the increase of greenhouse emissions.

Chemicals giant BASF and glass and ceramics firm Corning are working with a team at Columbia University in New York on a company called Global Thermostat that is investigating this technology. Global Research Technologies in Tucson, Arizona, and David Keith at the University of Calgary in Alberta, Canada are also looking into it.

Ref: http://www.reuters.com/article/environmentNews/idUSTRE5906V120091001

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Soot clouds of diesel fumes and wood fires pose threat to Himalayan glaciers:

Glaciers in the Himalayas and the Tibetan plateau that feed the river systems of almost half the world’s people are melting faster because of the effects of clouds of soot from diesel fumes and wood fires, according to scientists in India and China.

Scientists say that, while the threat of carbon dioxide to global warming has been accepted, soot from developing countries is a largely unappreciated cause of rising temperatures. Once the black carbon lands on glaciers, it absorbs sunlight that would otherwise be reflected by the snow, leading to melting.

Ref.: http://www.optimumpopulation.org/blog/?p=1248

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Tenets of Sustainability:

Broadly speaking, “Tenets of Sustainability” are the efforts that contribute to balanced regional sustainability.

These efforts encompass the three tenants of sustainability:

* Natural Resources and Ecology,

* Society and Culture, and

* Local Economy.

Energy conservation (including enhanced green building standards), renewable energy, food security, waste reduction, environmentally responsible waste disposal & recycling programs and re-localization efforts included in the tenets of sustainability, as well.

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Geo-engineering and Climate change:

The National Academy of Sciences defines Geo-engineering as “options that would involve large-scale engineering of our environment in order to combat or counteract the effects of changes in atmospheric chemistry.”

In other words, ‘Geo-engineering’ refers to human-made changes to the Earth’s land, seas or atmosphere that are intended to help slow climate change. For example, some geo-engineering techniques are based on carbon sequestration, for reduction of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere directly, an effort, to check climate change by controlling global warming.

However, some scientists are worried that geo-engineering techniques may cause more harm than good.

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Algae – Green answer to the world’s energy needs:

Algae are different. At its most basic level, algae only need water, sunlight, carbon dioxide and basic nutrients to grow.

Unlike the first-generation biofuels, algae can be cultivated on non-arable land using seawater or waste water. They can double their size in photosynthesis in a day, and are easily grown in controlled conditions.

This means it potentially has all the strengths of biofuels extracted from conventional crops without contributing to the global food crisis.

Algaculture – which focuses on microalgae, such as phytoplankton, rather than macroalgae, like seaweed – is a steadily growing business.

According to the Government-established Carbon Trust, algae is able to deliver six to 10 times more energy per hectare than traditional biofuels, while reducing carbon emissions by up to 80 per cent relative to fossil fuels.

Recently, US oil giant ExxonMobil vowed to invest up to $600 million in biotechnology res-earch devoted to turning algae into fuel. Other oil companies such as Shell, BP and Chevron have also recently invested in algae. Boeing, Virgin Atlantic, Continental Airlines and Air New Zealand – each of them members of the Algal Biomass Organisation – have done the same as well.

Ref: 1. Algae Biodiesel – Tremendous Potential for Next Generation Green-Energy

2. http://www.halifaxcourier.co.uk/features/Green-gooor-is-it-green.5628474.jp

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Biodiversity, its importance and its conservation:

Biodiversity means the whole variety of life on Earth. The variety of life on Earth, its biological diversity, is commonly referred to as biodiversity. The number of species of plants, animals, and microorganisms, the enormous diversity of genes in these species, the different ecosystems on the planet, such as deserts, rainforests and coral reefs are all part of a biologically diverse Earth.

Thus, genetic diversity is included, which is increasingly important given developments in biotechnology and farming.

biodiversity_2

Why is Biodiversity important? Does it really matter if there aren’t so many species?

Biodiversity boosts ecosystem productivity where each species, no matter how small, all have an important role to play. For example, a larger number of plant species means a greater variety of crops; greater species diversity ensures natural sustainability for all life forms; and healthy ecosystems can better withstand and recover from a variety of disasters.

Ecologists have long known that individual animal species and ecosystems are endangered not only by threats to particular creatures, but to the balance and interplay of the rich array of fauna and flora living in the world. While we dominate this planet, we still need to preserve the diversity in wildlife and its ecosystem.

It is feared that human activity is causing massive extinctions. From various animal species, forests and the ecosystems that forests support, marine life. The costs associated with deteriorating or vanishing ecosystems is very high.

The five major causes of biodiversity loss:

* Fragmentation, degradation or outright loss of habitats;

* Over-exploitation of biological resources;

* Pollution;

* Introduction of non-native species (rabbits to Australia, for instance);

* Climate change.

What is the solution?

Sustainable development and consumption would help avert ecological problems.

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Biomagnification – Putting tremendous stress on Ecosystem

Often, industrial pollutants which exist in trace amounts in the environment (such as certain heavy metals and organic agents found in pesticides) become concentrated in creatures near the top of the food chain. This is Biomagnification.

Biomagnification, also known as bioamplification or biological magnification. Bioconcentration and Bioaccumulation occur within an organism, whereas Biomagnification occurs across trophic (food chain) level.

Example: The farmer sprays his field with pesticide, some insects die, some survive with a weakened dose. A mouse eats these insects and the amount of pesticide in its system is the collective of all these insects. An owl eats several mice and their collective amount of pesticide is consumed.

The owl dies of pesticide poisoning.

That is Biomagnification in raptors.

This process of Biomagnification, can produce health problems for animals in an ecosystem, including humans!

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Ocean Currents and Global Climate: Thermohaline_Circulation

There are two type of Ocean Currents:

1. Surface CurrentsSurface Circulation

* These waters make up about 10% of all the water in the ocean.

* These waters are the upper 400 meters of the ocean.

2. Deep Water CurrentsThermohaline Circulation

* These waters make up the other 90% of the ocean

* These waters move around the ocean basins by density driven forces and gravity.

* The density difference is a function of different temperatures and salinity

* These deep waters sink into the deep ocean basins at high latitudes where the temperatures are cold enough to cause the density to increase.

Climate experts warned of an underestimated threat posed by the buildup of greenhouse gases—an abrupt collapse of the oceans’ prevailing circulation system that could send temperatures across Europe plummeting. However, the underlying assumptions of this particular analysis have been challenged.

Insofar as the thermohaline circulation governs the rate at which deep waters are exposed to the surface, it may also play an important role in determining the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

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What would happen to the world’s climate ……. !!!!

A 10 year old child just wrote a speech in his class on … What would happen to the world’s climate if we don’t do anything about the greenhouse gases??

He opened his speech with the following paragraphs:

“Imagine this. The year is 2060.

All of us who are students here are now old aged.

We have children and grandchildren of our own.

We would like to take our kids and small children to the beach as our parents took us.

We would like to push them on a swing in the sunlight, teach them to ride a bike. Let them join Little Athletics.

But we cannot do these things, as the Ozone Layer has been so depleted that the sun burns the skin from our bodies within minutes of going outside.

Clean water is in such short supply that all citizens are limited to a litre a day each (!!), so we do not have the pleasure of doing any physical activity without risking dehydration.

The air is so polluted that we are only able to breathe oxygen that is pumped into our homes, or carry heavy tanks with us when we go out, which are so expensive that only the wealthy can afford them.

At any rate it is too dangerous to go out, as extreme temperatures and rapid fluctuations in temperature put your life at risk all the time.

Floods, wild fires, hurricanes and cyclones are commonplace now and can occur without warning.

Does this sound like science fiction to you??

Well it could be science fact if we don’t do something to reduce the man made causes of climate change.”

Hope that we don’t destroy our “Mother Nature’s Valuable Gifts”.

LET’S PROTECT, PRESERVE AND SAVE ENVIRONMENT.

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Our Planet Earth heading for “catastrophic” and “irreversible” climate change by 2040 !!!

A new research in Scotland has claimed that carbon dioxide (CO2) levels are rising at a much faster rate than envisaged by UN experts. As per the report, Earth is heading for “Catastrophic” and “Irreversible” climate change by 2040.

The rise of greenhouse gases will trigger an unprecedented rate of global warming that will result in the loss of the ice-covered polar seas by 2020, much of our coral reefs by 2040 and cause a 1.4-metre rise in the sea level by 2100, the research predicted.

Ref: http://in.news.yahoo.com/139/20090803/981/tsc-planet-earth-heading-for-catastrophi.html

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Rules to be followed by Tourists to protect Nature (Plants and Animals):

Wherever you visit as tourist, remember to protect our Mother Nature’s precious gift – Plants and Animals. Follow most simple steps:

“Leave nothing but Footprint” and “Take nothing but Pictures”.

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Levels of recycling:

There are three levels of recycling – primary, secondary and tertiary.

* Primary recycling is taking the recycled material and putting it back into the same product.

* Secondary recycling is using the material in some other end product and

* Tertiary recycling requires breaking the material down into its original components.

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What is a Green Environment?

In order to create an eco-friendly Green Environment, we utilize products that are non-toxic and biodegradable. These safe products must accomplish the same goals as products we have come to trust, but should not contain the harmful synthetic chemicals, vapors and environmental by-products that are in common name brand products.

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Go Green By Eliminating Use Of Harmful Chemical Pesticides

Pesticides enter our bodies a couple of ways. Any food that has been treated with pesticides will have some trace left on or in it when we eat it. Pesticides wash into the land and water ways and other plants and animals ingest it and when we eat them we are ingesting the pesticides they absorbed or ate. Pesticides enter our drinking water and can’t be 100% filtered out.

In fact, many of the pesticides used today were derived from nerve agents developed to kill humans. Insects are becoming resistant and we are having to use greater quantities or stronger formulas to keep pests under control.

We can grow crops and food with natural pesticides, this often results in smaller yields, but it is a fair trade off than damaging our health.

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Problem of Overpopulation:

It has been recognized that mother of all global environmental problems is Overpopulation.

Because of rapid population growth worldwide, majority of the population will be teenagers in the 21st century.

People can continue to ignore the overpopulation problem and its adverse effects; then they will be trapped in a downward spiral that may well lead to the end of civilization in a few decades.

Population explosion is the root cause of the planet’s diminishing resources, and consequently the source of famine, global warming and other environmental problems.

The key to solve this Global overpopulation problem is to promote “High educational level among women with their self-sufficiency”.

In this respect we should take lesson from some of the highly developed countries, such as Sweden, Norway, Germany, Japan etc., where population growth is much less.

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HISTORICAL GROWTH IN WORLD’S POPULATION

* 1830 the world’s population was One billion.

* 1930 just 100 years later, the population reached 2 billion.

* 1960 30 years later world’s population reached 3 billion

* 15 more years later in 1975, it climbed to 4 billion.

* 12 years later in 1987, world’s population reached 5 billion.

* In 1998 11 years later the world’s population reached 6 billion

* By 2029, the world’s population would be about 10.4 billion

DISTRIBUTION OF WORLD’S POPULATION

population_density4

1. East Asia: Approximately 1/4 of the world’s population lives in East Asia, including Eastern parts of China, Japan, the Korean Peninsula and the island of Taiwan.

2. South Asia: The second largest concentration is in South Asia region where more than 20% of world’s population resides. It comprises India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka. India is the world’s second most populous country.

3. South East Asia: Nearly 500 million people live in this region comprising series of islands located between the Pacific and Indian Oceans. They include the Philippines and Indonesia (which is made up of 13,677 islands). More than 100 million people live on the island of Java (Indonesia).

4. Europe: The world’s third largest population cluster comprises about two dozen countries that make up much of Europe. Approximately 15% of the world’s people live in this cluster.

5. North America:  The largest concentration of people in the Western Hemisphere is in the Northeastern United States and South Eastern Canada. Approximately 150 million people live in this region.

Ref.: http://www.geography.ccsu.edu/kyem/GEOG110/Population/POPULATION%20GROWTH.htm

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Global population surpassed ‘Limit of Sustainability’:

Current world population is about 7.0 bn.

Current net population growth per day is about 220,000 and increasing day by day.

It has been reported that, now the global population is so much, it has already surpassed our planet’s ‘Limit of Sustainability’.

THE MOST POPULOUS NATIONS

CHINA

1.33 bn

INDIA

1.16 bn

USA

306m

INDONESIA

230m

BRAZIL

191m

Urgently, there is need to decrease the population growth, with an aim to decrease overall Global Population.

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Groundwater vanishing in North India – Overpopulation is the reason!!

Images from NASA’s Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) reveal that groundwater levels in major part of North India are falling dramatically — by one foot a year — a trend that could lead to “extensive socio-economic stresses” for the region’s more than 115 million residents.

The depletion is caused entirely by human activity such as over irrigation, and not natural climatic variability. Groundwater is being pumped out faster than it is being replenished. This is an effect of overpopulation in the region – a burning example of unsustainable population growth, which in my opinion, is irreversible.

Reference: http://www.hindu.com/2009/08/14/stories/2009081461071200.htm

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CONSERVATION OF FRESHWATER IS NEED-OF-THE-HOUR

Freshwater is water with very low soluble mineral content; sources include lakes, streams, rivers, glaciers, and underground aquifers.

Freshwater is a scarce resource and often a limiting factor for development. We should take great care to protect it.

The fact is, freshwater only accounts for 2.15 per cent of all the Earth’s water. Even that percentage is deceiving because 99.5 per cent of all surface freshwater is locked away in continental ice.

The increase in the world’s population and the growth of industrialization and consequent pollution makes a global crisis of freshwater. 11_watavail_1995_2025_large1

The present state of fresh water is mainly include problems such as, freshwater augmentation, waste water and storm water, eutrophication of lakes and reservoirs, sewage and public health problems.

The relatively small amount of available freshwater elaborates on how critical it is for everyone to help preserve and maintain clean, healthy lakes and streams, our sources of water.

To combat the freshwater crisis, the United Nations has named the decade 2005-2015 as the decade of “Water for Life”. Comprehensive efforts are essential towards an effective and coherent response to the challenge of water scarcity in some parts of the world.

There are many ways of preserving and maximizing the sustainability of freshwater. We should explore them all.

The conservation of freshwater include the construction of small reservoirs wherever possible, sustainable use of groundwater systems including artificial groundwater recharge and rainwater harvesting for smaller cultivation and vegetable gardens.

[For more refer ‘Water-conservation-need-of-the-day for our very survival‘]

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Learn from Israel for effective farming when there is land and freshwater shortages: desert_farming

Farming in Israel is a very good example of using low quality water for high yield crops.

More than half of the land area in Israel is desert. Moreover, severe limitations in the supply of high quality water necessitated a shift to the use of low quality and recycled water for agriculture.

In fact, farming in Israel is a ‘high tech’ operation.

The drive to increase yields and crop quality has led to the development of new seed and plant varieties, as well as to innovations such as a soil-enhancing substance (vermiculite) which, when mixed with local soils, boosts crop yields, and drip irrigation.

Many of the various steps in farming are computerized and electronically controlled, enabling less than 2% of the population to produce all major horticultural products for domestic consumption as well as for export to developed world.

Agricultural export valued at approximately one and a half billion dollars per year.

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Researchers reveal solar power breakthrough – To rival electricity grid in five years!!:

The cost of electricity generated by solar power cells is falling so fast, it is likely to provide a serious alternative to the national grid within five years.

Scientists demonstrated that solar cells are now capable of converting 43 percent of the sunlight hitting them into electricity.

However, the demonstration did not use regular silicon-based solar cells, which are much cheaper and more likely to be in popular use.

Rather, the demonstration cells require sunlight to be split into five different frequencies, or ‘colours’, with each colour sent to a different cell.

In contrast, the efficiency record with regular silicon-based solar cells stands at just 25 percent.

Significance of the new system is that, as the intensity of light is increased, the efficiency of the demonstration cells improves.

References:

1. https://saferenvironment.wordpress.com/2009/02/02/solar-power-%E2%80%93-sustainable-green-energy-to-protect-our-economy-and-environment/

2.  http://www.itnews.com.au/News/154653,researchers-reveal-solar-power-breakthrough.aspx

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Environmental issues of Today:

Environmental issues have become hot topics in the recent years. Although there is widespread concern about problems such as global warming and climate change, the majority of people neither realizes the true scale of the problems nor fully appreciates the devastating social repercussions.

Climate change is the biggest challenge that we face in the world today. It is already leading to significant changes in the world’s physical environment. Extreme weather events are becoming more frequent. Glaciers are melting. Sea ice and snow cover are declining. Animals and plants are responding to an earlier spring.

Although we are currently concerned about global warming caused by mankind’s enhancement of the natural greenhouse effect through greenhouse gas pollution, the Earth’s climate has fluctuated many times in the past in response to natural mechanisms of climate change. Such changes in global climate have also occurred over much longer time scales, from hundreds and thousands of years to millions and hundreds of millions of years. In fact the current global warming trend which began at the end of the 19th century spans only a tiny fraction of the Earth’s climatic history. pollution_problem

The overall state of the global climate is largely determined by balance between energy the Earth receives from the Sun and the heat which the Earth releases back to space, called the global energy balance. Many causes of climate change involve processes that alter the global energy balance. The enhanced greenhouse effect is a potential cause of climate change because the extra quantities of greenhouse gases put into the air by mankind trap more heat in the atmosphere. This upsets the global energy balance and causes a rise in global surface temperature. Although most scientists agree that global warming is the result of the enhanced greenhouse effect, natural processes can also upset the global energy balance in this way, causing similar rises in global temperature. A change in the amount of energy received by the Sun for example has often been proposed as the cause of global warming. The challenge facing scientists is to establish beyond doubt a link between global warming and man-made greenhouse gas pollution.

Global warming is an extremely severe problem facing the world today. It is an increase in the earth’s temperature, which can be caused by the use of fossil fuels, and industrial or agricultural processes. Man-made emissions of greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide have increased, largely as a result of the burning of fossil fuels for energy and transportation. In the last 20 years, concern has grown that these two phenomena are, at least in part, associated with each other. That is to say, global warming is now considered most probably to be due to the increases in greenhouse gas emissions and concurrent increases in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, which have enhanced the Earth’s natural greenhouse effect. Whilst other natural causes of climate change can cause global climate to change over similar periods of time, computer models demonstrate that in all probability there is a real discernible human influence on the global climate. In addition to impacts on wildlife and species biodiversity, human agriculture, forestry, water resources and health will all be affected.

Heat is the fuel of weather systems. More heat, more extreme weather.

Global Warming adds energy to the Earth’s biosphere. Energy drives the water cycle. The more energy there is the faster the water cycle is driven and the more extreme the weather patterns become.

Each one degree rise in the temperature of the world’s oceans is the equivalent to 1.4 BILLION one Megaton atom bombs; that is a lot of energy. It shouldn’t be surprising that the result is more extreme weather.

Such impacts will be related to changes in precipitation of rainfall and snowfall, sea level, and the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events, resulting from global warming. It is expected that the societies currently experiencing existing social, economic and climatic stresses will be both worst affected and least able to adapt. These will include many in the developing world, low-lying islands and coastal regions, and the urban poor.

The effects and causes of global warming have been on the rise and people need to do something about it before the problem gets any worse. We could start with exchanging normal lights into energy saving light-bulbs. In addition we could make short journeys on foot or by bike instead of using a motorbike or a car to prevent the increase of carbon dioxide. There are too many cars on the road, so it would be better if everybody tried to form carpools and if this is not possible we could use public transport. Besides that we could use hybrid-cars, which use a rechargeable energy storage system to supplement fossil fuel energy for vehicle propulsion. Hybrid engines are smaller and more efficient than traditional fuel engines. Some hybrid vehicles use regenerative braking to generate electricity while traveling. The term “Hybrid Vehicle” can also refer to a vehicle engine that uses a combination of different fuels such as petroleum and ethanol. To save the future of the world we could also use the water from garden butts for saving. After watching TV or listening to music, we could put off the stand-by button. In addition we could buy biodegradable products and we could use solar or wind energy. While brushing our teeth we could turn off the water tap. The easiest thing to contribute something to save the future is if we recycled our rubbish correctly; put everything in the right bin. At the end we could not only save the future a little bit, we would also save a lot of money.

Some of the European countries such as Germany etc., have one of the best system for recycling. A major part of the success of the program is the proper sorting of garbage. Most of the wastes are segregated systematically at the source, for their easy reuse and recycle. Glass, paper, packaging etc., are reused or recycled very efficiently. Most of the biological wastes are thrown for compost. The USA is one of the largest waste producing nations in the world; because of high costs recycling isn’t as advantaged as in the EU. We have to take up this issue with developing countries as well.

Public awareness on various environmental issues is the most important factor, in order to control damages. The human population is expanding rapidly, thereby the demand, of almost everything is increasing. The one of the simplest concept one should have, is to reduce consumption of various renewable resources, recycle and reuse whatever possible.

[For more refer ‘ Global Warming and Climate Change ‘ ]

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Four degrees of warming ‘likely’:

In a dramatic acceleration of forecasts for global warming, UK scientists say the global average temperature could rise by 4C (7.2F) as early as 2060.

This average increase in warming over the globe translates into even greater warming in many regions, along with major changes in rainfall and greater degree of fast devastation.

Ref.: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/8279654.stm

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Width of tropics is expanded due to Climate Change – Devastating effect

The size of tropical zone is rapidly expanded by climate change phenomenon due to Global warming.

This is a devastating effect, where drought, diseases are bound to expand.

Satellite and other data have confirmed this.

The affected areas under the expanded tropics would be heavily-populated regions of southern Australia, southern Africa, the southern Europe-Mediterranean-Middle East region, the southwestern United States, northern Mexico, and southern South America.

It is predicted that affected areas may experience severe drying.

Ref.: http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/Earth/Climate-change-increasing-width-of-tropics/articleshow/4746502.cms

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Arctic Ocean will be an “open sea” in a decade – without ice!!

The Arctic Ocean will be an “open sea” almost entirely free from ice within a decade, newly-released data has indicated.

Ice cover during the summer months will have entirely disappeared within 20 years, but most of the decrease will happen before 2020, leaving the Arctic Ocean clear for marine transport.

Reference: http://environment.uk.msn.com/news/headlines/article.aspx?cp-documentid=150223595

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Global CO2 Emissions: co2_emission

In 2006, for the first time China surpassed the USA in CO2 emissions by 8%. China’s CO2 emissions are now estimated to be about 14% higher than those from the USA.

Dramatic increase in coal burning and mounting cement production pushed China into the ignoble first-place spot.

The fact remains, individual countries with carbon footprints as large as the United States’ and China’s can barely slow down climate change on their own. Developed countries such as the U.K., Russia and Japan are also major carbon contributors, and India leads a mob of up-and-comers who still rely heavily on dirty fuels.

Now the top 5 countries in CO2 emissions are China, USA, European Union, India, and Russia, with global share of 24%, 21%, 12%, 8% and 6% respectively.

However, since population size and level of economic development differ considerably between countries, the emissions expressed per person show a different ranking: CO2 emissions per person from the USA, Russia, EU-15, China and India are presently about 19.4, 11.8, 8.6, 5.1 and 1.8 metric ton CO2, respectively.

The inevitable answer to CO2 emissions is switching to power sources that don’t produce them.

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Global Coal Reserves and CO2 emissions: coal_reserves

As per some of the geologists, the new calculation of world’s coal reserves may be much lower than the previously estimated global coal reserves.

If this information is validated, it could have massive impact on the fate of the planet’s climate. On environmental front, this could be quite relieving information as coal is responsible for most of the CO2 emissions that drive climate change.

The carbon dioxide emitted when we burn coal to create usable energy is primarily responsible for global warming. Scientists think that the stability of global climate will be dictated by ‘how we use or do not use’ our coal resources.

In fact, we are yet to find suitable methods to burn coal in a clean and environment-friendly manner, so that no CO2 is emitted to the atmosphere.

Still, as per estimation, burning all the fossil fuel available, the atmospheric concentration of CO2 would go up to around 460 parts per million (ppm); which might cause a 2-degree-Celsius rise in global temperatures.

That would be havoc and devastating.

There is need to limit the CO2 in the atmosphere to 350 ppm, down from the present level of 380 ppm, but it is difficult to reduce from higher level.

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Why are corals dying so fast? coral_reef

Oceans are considered to be one of the major natural ‘carbon sinks’ – it absorbs atmospheric CO2.

Dissolved CO2 in water makes H2CO3 (carbonic acid) which disturbs the life cycle of corals.

The pH of water in ocean increases due to presence of this excess carbonic acid.

The coral surfaces are affected by this acid as well as other dissolved gases produced as a result of pollution.

It is thought that, oceans might have become ‘saturated’ with our emissions.

Its pity, the anthropogenic sources are a major culprit here.

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Missing Carbon – It’s a really major mystery!!

The coal, oil, and natural gas that drive the industrial world’s economy all contain carbon inhaled by plants hundreds of millions of years ago — carbon that now is returning to the atmosphere causing Global Warming. Carbon dioxide is foremost in an array of gases from human activity that increase the atmosphere’s ability to trap heat. (Methane from cattle, rice fields, and landfills, and the chlorofluorocarbons in some refrigerators and air conditioners are others.)

Each year we dump roughly 8.8 billion tons (8 metric tons) of carbon into the atmosphere, 6.5 billion tons (5.9 metric tons) from fossil fuels and 1.5 billion (1.4 metric) from deforestation. But less than half that total, 3.2 billion tons (2.9 metric tons), remains in the atmosphere to warm the planet.

Where is the missing carbon?

Forests, grasslands, and ocean water must be acting as ‘Carbon Sinks’. They steal back roughly half of the carbon dioxide we emit, slowing its buildup in the atmosphere and delaying the effects on climate.

Now, researchers question, if the carbon sinks stop absorbing some of our excess carbon dioxide — we could be facing drastic changes even before 2050, a disaster too swift to avoid.

Apart, scientists can’t be sure that this blessing as carbon sink will last, or whether, as the globe continues to warm, it might even change to a curse if forests and other ecosystems change from carbon ‘sinks’ to ‘sources’, releasing more carbon into the atmosphere than they absorb.

References:

1. http://www.nature.com/climate/2007/0708/full/climate.2007.35.html

2. http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/0402/feature5/

3. http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/missing-carbon.html

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Co2 pumping underground – Better proposition for improvement of Climate ccs

Carbon capture and storage (CCS), i.e., collecting CO2 emissions at the source of generation and pumping them underground.

CCS is one of the few technologies that has the potential to become very big.

Costs are rising and becoming a drawback due to the difficulty of trapping emissions.

Companies, those have CCS projects underway are looking to fund the future projects through lucrative carbon credits.

However, critics are skeptical and view that there is no guarantee that emissions will stay underground, and leaks pose dangers.

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Permafrost is thawing:

Permafrost is permanent year-round frozen ground. The permafrost zone includes northern Alaska, most other Arctic land, such as northern Canada and much of Siberia, and the higher reaches of mountainous regions such as the Alps, Andes and Tibet.

The entire permafrost zone reported about thawing at an alarming rate. This thaw is attributed to climate warming.

Thawing of permafrost is a serious problem of the region. When permafrost melts, water replaces ice and the ground subsides, taking the structures on top along with it. Thaw can cause buildings and roads to droop, and pipelines to crack. Natural features are also affected. Major thaw changes water distribution in ecosystem. Sequestered carbon dioxide and methane released to the atmosphere, resulting increase in Greenhouse gases.

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Reduction of Trade Barrier and Global Climate System:

Removal or reduction in trade barrier certainly affects global climate system –

a. Removal or reduction of trade barrier among developed and underdeveloped nations means, there will be free-flow of cheaper goods manufactured by underdeveloped nations to developed countries in a major way. Production of goods at cheaper rates means using cheaper raw materials and processes, which usually do not take care of better environmental management by underdeveloped nations – causing drastic degradation of global environment.

b. Naturally, more and longer transportation of goods are involved when trade barriers are removed, which again go against global climate system as transporattion enhances greenhouse gas emissions because of use of more fossil fuel.

c. Because of economic reason, the downgraded / cheaper products produced by underdeveloped nations have comparatively larger demand; therefore the possibility of over-exploitation of resources can not be ruled out. This situation leads to bio-degradation of various resources used by underdeveloped nations for overproduction of goods.

d. Due to absence of proper R&D facility, proper environmental legislation, suitable manpower for imposition of strict environmental rules and rampant corruption among Government officials  in most of underdeveloped nations there is slackness in promotion of ‘Green Thinking’.

The prime objective of the WTO is to expand the ‘production of and trade in goods and services’, the carbon-intensive nature of global trade means there is an inherent conflict between the aspirations of the addressing climate change and those of the WTO. Now, key problem is the lack of clarity as to the relationship between the Kyoto Protocol and the international trade architecture.

Therefore, WTO will have to find a balance.

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‘Arctic Sea Ice’ is melting faster than expected – Alarm Bell!! The last Polar Bear

Alarming information been reported recently that melting of ‘Arctic sea ice’ is so rapid than expected earlier, we doubt if these could be seen beyond the year 2030. arctic_seaice_extent_2007_0

Presence of arctic sea ice is quite important from the view of Global warming, as white ice surface reflects back the sunlight into space, it reduces the warming effects. If sea ice is replaced by dark ocean water, the sunlight is absorbed; rapid increase of warming effect of earth takes place.

During last decade due to severe loss in arctic sea ice, there is an increase in Arctic surface air temperature by more than 5 degrees Celsius. This amount of increase in surface temperature was expected by the year 2070.

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Global Warming Concern:

Levels of Global Warming Concern can be grouped into 6 categories:

* The Alarmed

* The Concerned

* The Cautious

* The Disengaged

* The Doubtful

* The Dismissive

The above groups are described in the following URL:

http://climateprogress.org/2009/05/19/global-warming%E2%80%99s-six-americas/#more-6894

It has been mentioned that, 51% of Americans fall within alarmed and concerned. 31% are cautious or disengaged. 18% are doubtful or dismissive.

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Energy Conservation is Need-of-the-Hour towards journey to ‘Green’

Energy conservation is the practice of decreasing the quantity of energy used while achieving a similar outcome of end use. In other words, energy conservation is a reduction or elimination of unnecessary energy use, i.e., reduction or elimination of wastage of energy. There are many activities that people can do to conserve energy and help not only themselves, but also the environment and everyone around them. Conserving energy is important because most of our current energy sources are not renewable; meaning their existence on earth is finite. Most importantly, the conservation of energy helps the environment by reducing the amount of air pollution caused by the burning of fossil fuels.

By conserving energy we will not only be helping our bottom line by reducing our energy bills but we will also be helping the world’s environment from deteriorations. Economically, an average savings of up to forty percent can be achieved though a properly implemented energy conservation plan.

What do we need to do to change? What can we do as individuals? Methods to conserve energy can begin with a simple change in our daily activities. From driving less, to turning off a light in a room that is deserted, there are many simple steps that can be taken to aid the cause. Conservation methods take thought, commitment and changes in every day lives to make a difference. In order to conserve energy, consumers need to be aware of their daily usage and find ways to cut that usage.

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Microwave Treatment For Recycling of Waste Plastics – A Greener and Cleaner Solution:

Use of microwaves for Recycling of Waste Hydrocarbons (i.e., waste plastics) and Waste Rubber, is an emerging green technology.

As per the research, microwave treatment for molecular destruction of organic compounds such as rubber, plastics and scrap tires into commercially marketable products such as hydrocarbon carbon fuels (liquid and gaseous including hydrogen), carbon black etc., can be effectively possible.

Examples:

* U.S. Pat. No. 6,152,306 to Miller discloses a process in which solid waste is reduced to carbon black and oil by heating the waste with microwave energy and externally applied heat.

* U.S. Pat. No. 4,647,443 to Apffel discloses a process for recovering carbon black from used vehicle tires, including a conventional pyrolysis step followed by a microwave heating step.

* U.S. Pat. No. 5,364,821 to Holland discloses a method of producing active carbon by microwave heating a carbonaceous material. The active carbon is used for filtration of liquids.

References:

1. http://www.docstoc.com/docs/590699/Writing-Business-Plans-for-Recycling-Enterprises-Plastics-Glass-or-Rubber

2. http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn12141-giant-microwave-turns-plastic-back-to-oil.html

3. http://www.envirowave.com/

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Charcoal is burning Africa

Africa’s forest cover is reducing at very alarming rate due to extensive use of charcoal for energy.

80% of Africans rely on biomass for energy (wood or charcoal fuel).

4 million hectares of forest are felled each year in Africa, twice the world average.

Ref: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/8272603.stm

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Save Tropical Rain Forests – Biofuel Plantation in Tropical Rain Forests Region should be discouraged:

Conversion of original tropical rain-forest to any other form of cultivable produce – whether for manufacturing of biofuel or for use for other industrial products – is bad and leads to Global Warming.

In fact, biofuels are a bad deal for forests, wildlife and the climate if they replace tropical rain forests.

Tropical rain forests are the one of most useful resources gifted by our Mother Nature for mitigating effects of global climate change. Rain forests are the most efficient carbon storage tools, which can not be replaced by even planting crops for biofuel – a growing practice in tropical region such as Malaysia, Indonesia etc.

Therefore, this activity of deforestation, means removing nature’s efficient storage tools, may actually hasten global climate change – should immediately be discouraged by the world community.

Planting biofuels on degraded grasslands instead of tropical rain forests would be considered – that lead to a net removal of carbon from the atmosphere.

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MESSAGES:

* WE MUST REDUCE OUR CONSUMPTION OF NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCES.

* WE MUST REDUCE THE GREENHOUSE GASES WE RELEASE.

* WASTE REDUCTION, REUSE, AND RECYCLING ALLOW US TO USE FEWER RAW MATERIALS, CONSERVE NATURAL RESOURCES, PRESERVING LANDFILL SPACE AND MINIMIZING ENERGY USE.

* GROW GREEN, GROW MORE TREES.

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Community initiatives on protection of environment:

* Most of our cities are not planned properly in terms of Protection of Environment.

* With structures mushrooming everywhere, noisy industries coming up, bars and even discotheques in residential areas; how environment can be protected well.

* This results in poor waste disposal system in the cities, dumping & littering and plastics are strewn allover – posing great health hazard.

* Protection of environment of our surroundings / city is every citizen’s prime job. Every one has a role to play.

* No one should litter and plastics should be disposed of correctly – preferably for recycling.

* Also non-profits and the public sector should work hand in hand to protect and also educate the community on protection of surrounding and city environment.

* The youth too should take the initiative through their schoolwork and club awareness.

* This programme can be started through planting trees; educating the public and just holding cleaning exercises from time to time.

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Development of efficient ‘Energy Storage Technology’ is Need-Of-The-Hour:

* As there is continuous thrust on optimal utilization of the renewable energy sources due to various environmental issues, it has become a challenge to us to deliver proper power quality, keeping reliability of power with stability and efficiency to the industry from these energy sources. The power generation, transmission & distribution system must be able to supply the power reliably while maintaining the power quality through out the year.

* The renewable energy sources like Photo Voltaic Solar Cell, Wind energy system the power production depends upon availability of sunlight & wind respectively so the nature of power available to loads is intermittent, thus making them non-dispatchable sources. With the help of reliable energy storage system the non-dispatchable energy can be made into the dispatchable energy source.

* Therefore, there is urgent need to study different energy storage technology available and to enhance the system performance by properly designing energy storage technology for application in the power system at different stages.

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Carbon Footprint:

Food has a carbon footprint all its own, but greener way to produce for your lunch is by sourcing locally and in a sustainable way.

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Carbon Nanotubes – Recent study about its Toxicity

Carbon “Nanotubes” are considered to be future star material which has shown remarkable versatility, strength and lightness than any other material of today’s use.

nanotubeResearchers opine that, Carbon Nanotubes’ potential applications are so powerful its use cannot be ignored. For example, with Carbon Nanotubes cars could be 80 percent lighter than today’s model without compromising sturdiness.

A recent study in the US finds that longer strain of Carbon Nanotube has similar toxic characteristics as of asbestos.

This perturbs many about  safe use of Carbon Nanotubes, as this marvelous product is widely available for sale.

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Average Cost Comparison of Power Generation from various sources

Below a comparison of various energy generation costs (average) is shown:

Energy Costs Comparison

Resource Type

Average Cost (cents per kWh)

Hydroelectric

2-5

Nuclear

3-4

Coal

4-5

Natural gas

4-5

Wind

4-10

Geothermal

5-8

Biomass

8-12

Hydrogen fuel cell

10-15

Solar

15-32

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War Affects The Environment Adversely:

We are familiar with images of devastated battlefields resulted out of war.

Pollution, radiation, deteriorating bodies etc., leaves overall a psychological depression on the environment.

Environmental effects of some war affected regions (after WW-II) –

* Kuwait war – oil strike (1991) kwait_1

A scientist from a Desert Laboratory toured Kuwait’s burnt-out oilfields. ‘I’ve never seen such devastation. Kuwait’s desert before the Gulf War was very healthy, despite centuries of nomadic grazing and decades of oil development. It supported substantial greenery and wildlife. But now it’s coated in oil residues that affect water permeability, seed germination and microbial life. Plants are dying because they can’t breathe through blackened leaves under dark skies.’

Capping the burning oil wells took ten months. Crude oil released into the sea killed tens of thousands of marine birds and mammals. Oil from extinguished wells formed huge petrochemical lakes, destroying the land surface. Toxic smoke and fumes killed migratory birds and aggravated human chest conditions. A veterinarian at the liberation of Kuwait said: ‘I saw birds just dropping out of the sky. Later I found a herd of dead camels covered with dead flies: whatever killed the camels killed the flies at the same time.’

* Vietnam war (1962-71) – vietnam_1

US military carried out a massive herbicidal programme in Vietnam for almost a decade. With 72 million litres of chemical spray, they defoliated the forests which provided cover for guerrillas.

‘All our coconut trees died,’ recalled a woman ten years later, in hospital with a third miscarriage, and also having chemotherapy; she asked not to be indentified. ‘Some of our animals died, and those that lived had deformed offspring. The seeds of the rice became very small, and we couldn’t use them for replanting.’

People exposed to the spray suffered headaches, vomiting, diarrhoea, weakness and chest complaints. Meanwhile, Agent Orange’s carcinogenic dioxin was sinking into the soil, washing into the sea, and entering the food chain, where it is still at work today. Children born since the war have consumed high levels of dioxin; and many fathered by men exposed to the spray (many of whom are now dead or suffering from cancers) have spina bifida and other congenital abnormalities

* War ‘has ruined Afghan environment’ – Two decades of war have laid waste Afghanistan’s environment so badly that its reconstruction is now compromised, the United Nations says. A UN Environment Programme (Unep) survey found more than half of Kabul’s water supply is going to waste.

Reference:

1. http://www.ppu.org.uk/learn/infodocs/st_environment.html

2. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/2704989.stm

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Table of Pollutants, their Sources and Effects

pollution-table*******************************************************************************************************

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Responses

  1. People can talk about business going much more green, but the Capitalist ideal does not allow it. The fetish for money means the environment is just another commodity to be bought and sold and destroyed for profit. It will never change.

  2. My few thoughts on the matter of Capitalism ideal and infrastructure. An infrastructural system, setup within a government, must provide, at the lowest reasonable price, heat and energy. Renewable energies only take investment money and time. Tax dollars and time.
    A capitalistic ideal can still be maintain. We still consume oil and plastics for entertainment. But the next generation to inherent this earth is beginning to see the changes. We are beginning to notice our mistakes of our previous generations.

    I’ve come to appreciate this site quite extensively. The sharing of ideas openly for everyone to share. It’s refreshing to come across the writings in this blog.

    Thank you.

    carboncopied2050.blogspot.com

  3. An eye opener.

    A nicely organised presentation on the environmental issues; causes, effects, suggestionsn, counter measures and way forward.

  4. http://helpcooltheearth.wordpress.com

  5. ..yes, that’s right . so we better care for our environment..

  6. please throw some light on usage of trees on coast line as bio shield for protection of coastal eco system from marine oil pollution

    regards

  7. We would like to use the image of a pelican drenched in oil for an educational display from July 16 – 18. Please let me know if this is possible.
    And if you can send the image in a jpeg or tiff at 300 spi, that would be helpful.
    Many thanks,
    Diane

  8. You could definitely see your enthusiasm in the paintings you write. The world hopes for more passionate writers such as you who are not afraid to say how they believe. At all times go after your heart.

  9. Eye opener. Every one should read and understand and take measures to conserve and keep a clean atmosphere which will sure to bless us.

  10. I reached this blog
    I am fortunate.

  11. nice information from above site

  12. Love the site.

  13. I really had to show this specific blog, “PARTHA
    DAS SHARMA’s Weblog on “Keeping World Environment Safer and Greener” | ENVIRONMENT” world3dfilmexposition.com with my personal pals on facebook. I reallyjust simply desired to distribute ur great posting! Thank you, Hayden

  14. Very good

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